by Al Katz

Al Katz is a Professor of Law, State University of New York at Buffalo, Faculty of Law and Jurisprudence. This paper originally appeared as a Buffalo Critical Legal Studies Monograph, 1983. This article is the product of the Balancing Seminar at Buffalo, 1978-1982, whose members included: Kathleen McDermott, Elizabeth Mensch, Richard Milan, Dennis Patterson, Melanie Pierson, Rochelle Reback, Judith Romanowski, Lee Smith, John Troll, William Bozzuffi, Betsy Broder, David Bryan, William Clauss, Peter Diamond, Herbert Eisenberg, Alan Freeman, Philip Halpern, Jacob Hyman, Joseph Kelemen, Gene Krauss, Virginia Leary, Stephen Wieczorek, Gary Wojtan, John Ziegler.

"The coalescence of a research paradigm creates the possibility of an accumulation of knowledge, and thus the phenomenon of scholarly progress. What is less often recognized, for the human sciences at least, is that any consolidation of a paradigm depends on the exclusion, or relegation to the status of 'art', of those elements of the changing discipline which call the credentials of the discipline itself into question, those research practices which . . . work at the edges of disorder." James Clifford, On Ethnographic Surrealism, 23 Comparative Study of Society and History 539, 554 (1981).

The Seminar gratefully acknowledges the contribution of visitors: Paul Diesing, Fred Konefsky, Howard Berman, Elizabeth Mensch, Duncan Kennedy.

I. Why the 'Background of Truth' 18
II. Binary Choices and Middle Positions 21
III. Litigation and the Objectivity of Represented Interests 24
IV. The Opening of Science and Social Interests 26
V. Civil Society and Normativity; Political Society and Representation 27
VI. The Productions of Representation, Expertise and Balancing 31


Section II
— The discussion of 18th century interests owes much to Hirschman's "The Passions and the Interests." Pitkin's treatment of the period is useful though simplistic.
— Chapter 15 of Pocock's "Machievellian Moment" contains an excellent account of Madisonian Federalism. Katz, "State Action and Actions Against the State" contains a more complicated treatment of virtual and actual representation.
— The examples of class actions and lawyer-client relations draws on the research of Simon & Yeazell.

Section V
— For the 'analytic of finitude' see Chapter 9 of Foucault's The Order of Things" which includes his thesis of the transcendental-empirical subject.
— Foucault's history of normativity is developed, thus far, in "Discipline and Punish". "The Birth of the Clinic", and "The History of Sexuality."
Further analysis of its relation to legal doctrine may be found in Katz, "Foucault for Lawyers."
— The issue of sovereignty and rights was opened by Foucault in his Two Lectures."

Section VI
— Credit for deconstructing the sociology of deviance belongs to Matza, "Becoming Deviant."
— On clinical practice see Friedson's "Profession of Medicine", Ch. 8.


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©Al Katz • Prof. of law SUNY, Buffalo, 1969-1989 (ret.)