by Al Katz
Al Katz is a Professor
of Law, State University of New York at Buffalo, Faculty of
Law and Jurisprudence. This paper originally appeared as a Buffalo
Critical Legal Studies Monograph, 1983. This article is the
product of the Balancing Seminar at Buffalo, 1978-1982, whose
members included: Kathleen McDermott, Elizabeth Mensch, Richard
Milan, Dennis Patterson, Melanie Pierson, Rochelle Reback, Judith
Romanowski, Lee Smith, John Troll, William Bozzuffi, Betsy Broder,
David Bryan, William Clauss, Peter Diamond, Herbert Eisenberg,
Alan Freeman, Philip Halpern, Jacob Hyman, Joseph Kelemen, Gene
Krauss, Virginia Leary, Stephen Wieczorek, Gary Wojtan, John
of a research paradigm creates the possibility of an accumulation
of knowledge, and thus the phenomenon of scholarly progress.
What is less often recognized, for the human sciences at least,
is that any consolidation of a paradigm depends on the exclusion,
or relegation to the status of 'art', of those elements of the
changing discipline which call the credentials of the discipline
itself into question, those research practices which . . . work
at the edges of disorder." James Clifford, On Ethnographic
Surrealism, 23 Comparative Study of Society and History 539,
The Seminar gratefully
acknowledges the contribution of visitors: Paul Diesing, Fred
Konefsky, Howard Berman, Elizabeth Mensch, Duncan Kennedy.
Why the 'Background of Truth' 18
II. Binary Choices and Middle
III. Litigation and the Objectivity
of Represented Interests 24
IV. The Opening of Science and
Social Interests 26
V. Civil Society and Normativity;
Political Society and Representation 27
VI. The Productions of Representation,
Expertise and Balancing 31
— The discussion of 18th century interests owes much to
Hirschman's "The Passions and the Interests." Pitkin's
treatment of the period is useful though simplistic.
— Chapter 15 of Pocock's "Machievellian Moment"
contains an excellent account of Madisonian Federalism. Katz,
"State Action and Actions Against the State" contains
a more complicated treatment of virtual and actual representation.
— The examples of class actions and lawyer-client relations
draws on the research of Simon & Yeazell.
— For the 'analytic of finitude' see Chapter 9 of Foucault's
The Order of Things" which includes his thesis of the transcendental-empirical
— Foucault's history of normativity is developed, thus
far, in "Discipline and Punish". "The Birth of
the Clinic", and "The History of Sexuality."
Further analysis of its relation to legal doctrine may be found
in Katz, "Foucault for Lawyers."
— The issue of sovereignty and rights was opened by Foucault
in his Two Lectures."
— Credit for deconstructing the sociology of deviance
belongs to Matza, "Becoming Deviant."
— On clinical practice see Friedson's "Profession
of Medicine", Ch. 8.
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